https://hitas.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/2.png12001200TimBhttps://hitas.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/FacebookProfile.pngTimB2021-05-25 09:00:112021-06-17 10:50:49Biostimulant Research ( May 2021)
Untreated Retention Test
Restriction for lateral water movement in a golf green is the thatch level. A high-quality penetrant wetting agent must remove as much water from the thatch layer as possible to create a dry upper playing surface. A thatch layer is often described as a “sponge” which absorbs moisture and when squeezed releases this moisture. This container contains water only.
The sponge was placed into each container to absorb as much water as possible, the sponge was then taken out of each solution and allowed to freely drain. The sponge was attached to a set of hand scales to weigh the moisture content. The scales were set to “0” once the sponge was attached so only the water content was recorded. This experiment was replicated 10 times, each time using new sponges to gain confidence in the accuracy of the data.
Treated Retention Test
The first restriction for lateral water movement in a golf green is the thatch level. A high-quality penetrant wetting agent must remove as much water from the thatch layer as possible to create a dry upper playing surface. A thatch layer is often described as a “sponge” which absorbs moisture and when squeezed releases this moisture.
This video shows the container containing a penetrant wetting agent at label application rate which is 10lts per Ha in 500lts of water. A anti foam was added to the penetrant wetting agent to allow the watermark effect- moisture flowing out of the sponge at the bottom. The sponge was placed into each container to absorb as much water as possible, the sponge was then taken out of each solution and allowed to freely drain.
The sponge was attached to a set of hand scales to weigh the moisture content. The scales were set to “0” once the sponge was attached so only the water content was recorded. This experiment was replicated 10 times, each time using new sponges to gain confidence in the accuracy of the data.
Drought Stress Trial
This video was taken in late June, in the early morning when dew was attempting to settle on the turf surface and stressed dry patch areas are clearly visible. The video was taken after a programme of 3 treatment applications. The difference between treated and untreated plots is obvious and offers an effective solution.
Every 2 weeks data from the trials is collected on drought stress using the Trimble Greenseeker meter. Also plot moisture content is measured using the Delta T Theta Probe. The trial will be complete by October 2018. Updates to follow when the trial is complete.
This video is of the golf green on the 25/07/18. The previous day there was no sign of anthracnose and the symptoms appeared overnight.
What can be done about the outbreak of Anthracnose?
Preventing Anthracnose occurring in the first place is essential. When the symptoms can be seen the plant is already dead.
A fungicide spray will only help in that it can stop the spread of the disease to adjacent healthy plants.
As the disease only occasionally affects Bent, minimizing the quantity of annual meadow grass in the sward
is the best approach. This of course is not always possible practically, so keeping the stress away from annual
meadow grass will help. The green in the video contains approximately 45% Bent, 10% Fescue and around
40% annual meadow grass, yet the disease has had a profound affect on the sward.
One method of testing a wetting agent’s ability to improve water penetration in hydrophobic soil is to measure the depth a solution reaches in a given time period. This is a very visual and simple test that HITAS utilises when screening potential new raw materials for our wetting agent formulations.
Insects and Mustard
When HITAS ran a biostimulant trial in the sunny Spring of 2020, it didn’t take long for our mustard plants to outgrow the greenhouse. With so much light, daily watering and the help of some novel treatments, soon they were reaching heights of over 6 foot! By moving the plants into a sheltered position outside, we were able to provide the areas pollinators with a bit of a treat…
Here we have a demonstration of the performance level of HITAS’ innovative new bio-surfactant
blend. We have compared its power to overcome water repellent soil against an organic wetting
agent and water. The soils were treated with each product at the recommended field application
rate 3 days prior to making the video to demonstrate curative action.
From right to left: Soil treated with water only (green label), soil treated with an organic wetting
agent (red label) and soil treated with HITAS bio-surfactant (orange label).
Water is applied to each soil, and the resulting differences in water infiltration speak for themselves!
In this video we can see one of HITAS’ premium penetrant wetting agents in action. First, water
(dyed for demonstrative purposes) is applied. Due to the cohesive forces within the water molecules
being stronger than the adhesive forces between water and the surface, it cannot spread.
Secondly, a solution of HITAS penetrant wetting agent is applied using the same method. It can be
seen immediately that the surface tension is massively reduced, and the solution can spread freely.
Finally, we added the same solution to the water droplets, which instantly reduced the surface
tension and allowed them to also spread.
Water Distribution with Wetting Agent Demo
Another method of showing wetting agent performance is to show how it moves through a water
repellent growing medium. By dying the solutions, you can really see how well the addition of one of
HITAS’ premium wetting agents improves the uniformity of water as it moves through the soil.
The green solution is one of HITAS’ penetrant wetting agent formulations at field application rate,
and the blue solution is water only. You can see the wetting agent solution can be applied to the bare soil, or to a water droplet, and the same effect can be achieved. In the final part of the video,
water is applied to the treated area to show that it is no longer water repellent because of applying
the wetting agent.
Water Repellent Soil Wetting Agent Demo
When soil is very hydrophobic, water can sometimes be completely unable to penetrate the soil
surface. This is a huge issue for growers and turf managers in the field when trying to get plants the
water they need, especially on sloped areas where any rain/applied water that cannot penetrate will
simply run off the surface.
This short video shows how well a premium wetting agent from HITAS can reduce the surface
tension of water and allow it to infiltrate into soil. The water has been dyed blue for demonstrative
Contact Angle Geniometer
HITAS have also been getting to grips with our Contact Angle Geniometer to help gain knowledge of how our surfactant formulations aid in the spreadability of water and liquid products. Along with our Surface Tensiometer, this piece of equipment is very useful for the product development process, as it can give us a great idea of which raw materials will have the biggest influence on surface wetting and spreadability. Measuring contact angle is useful as it can be used to predict how well a surfactant/wetting agent will allow a liquid to wet and spread on a surface, whether that be on soil or a leaf. We combine this with the various other tests we perform on all our new formulations, to determine which products are best suited to a given application. This method is particularly useful when investigating potential adjuvants and spreading agents.
HITAS have been utilising our brand-new Surface Tensiometer to further improve our understanding of how our surfactant formulations influence the behaviour of water. The machine is very useful for the product development process, as it can give us a great idea of which blends of raw materials will give the best performance. Measuring surface tension is useful as it can be used to predict how well a surfactant/wetting agent will allow a liquid to distribute evenly on a surface, whether that be in soil or on a leaf. We combine this with the various other tests we perform on all our new formulations, to determine which products are best suited to a given application. How we Measure Surface Tension The Surface Tensiometer uses a method which is commonly known as the ‘pulling-apart’ technique. Although it doesn’t sound very technical, this method can be used to give very accurate readings of the surface tension of a liquid. The process involves slightly immersing a platinum ring into a liquid, keeping the ring parallel to the liquid surface. Then, the liquid surface is slowly moved downwards, effectively ‘pulling up’ the ring. When this occurs, a liquid column is made below the ring before it breaks away from the liquid. Using sophisticated computer software, the peak downward force just before the liquid column parts from the ring can be detected. This downward force can then be converted into surface tension using a mathematical equation that accounts for the density of the liquid.
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